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Jammu and Kashmir


Dictionary: Jammu and Kash·mir (kăsh'mîr', kăsh-mîr') pronunciation (Popularly known as Kashmir)
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A former princely state of northern India and Pakistan. Part of the Mogul Empire after 1587, it was annexed by British India in 1846 and partitioned between India and Pakistan after fierce fighting (1947–1949). Both India and Pakistan have continued to claim jurisdiction over the whole territory.



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State (pop., 2008 est.: 12,366,000), northern India. With an area of 39,146 sq mi (101,387 sq km), it occupies the southern portion of the Kashmir region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent and is bordered by Pakistan and China, by the portions of Kashmir administered by those two countries, and by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. The land is predominantly mountainous and includes segments of the Karakoram and Himalaya ranges. Part of Kashmir's Ladakh region is included in the state. There are two major lowland areas: the plains of the Jammu region and the fertile and heavily populated Vale of Kashmir. The majority of the state's people are Muslims, although Hindus predominate in the southeastern Jammu area, and eastern Ladakh is largely Buddhist. Formerly a princely state, Jammu and Kashmir became an Indian state in 1947, even as India and Pakistan were fighting for control of the entire Kashmir region.

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Jammu and Kashmir
जम्मू और कश्मीर
جموں اور کشمیر

Flag

Seal
Map of India showing location of Jammu and Kashmir
Location of Jammu and Kashmir in India
Country India
District(s) 22
Established 1947-10-26
Capital Jammu (winter)
Srinagar (summer)
Largest city Srinagar
Governor Narinder Nath Vohra
Chief Minister Omar Abdullah
Legislature (seats) Bicameral (89 + 36)
Population
Density
10,143,700[1] (18th)
100 /km2 (259 /sq mi)[2]
Language(s) Urdu, Kashmiri, Dogri
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 222,236 km2 (85,806 sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 IN-JK
Website jammukashmir.nic.in

Coordinates: 33°27′N 76°14′E / 33.45°N 76.24°E / 33.45; 76.24

Jammu and Kashmir JammuKashmir.ogg (Dogri: जम्मू और कश्मीर; Urdu: جموں اور کشمیر) is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains. Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the People's Republic of China to the north and east, the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas, to the west and northwest respectively. Formerly a part of the erstwhile princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, this territory is disputed among China, India and Pakistan. Jammu and Kashmir is referred to in Pakistan as Indian-occupied Kashmir. [3]

Jammu and Kashmir consists of three regions: Jammu, the Kashmir valley and Ladakh. Srinagar is the summer capital, and Jammu, its winter capital. While the Kashmir valley, often known as Paradise on Earth, is famous for its beautiful mountainous landscape, Jammu's numerous shrines attracts tens of thousands of Hindu and Muslim pilgrims every year. Ladakh, also known as "Little Tibet", is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and Buddhist culture.

Contents

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History

Portrait of Maharaja Gulab Singh, former Governor of Jammu of the Sikh Empire of Ranjit Singh, in 1847. (Artist: James Duffield Harding)

The area known as Jammu and Kashmir came into existence when the Mughal Emperor Akbar invaded Kashmir in 1586, led by his general Bhagwant Das and his aide Ramchandra I. The Mughal army defeated the Turk ruler Yusuf Khan of Kashmir. After the battle, Akbar appointed Ramchandra I as the governor of the Himalayan kingdom. Ramchandra I founded the city of Jammu, named after the Hindu goddess Jamwa Mata, south of the Pir Panjal range.

In 1780, after the death of Ranjit Deo, a descendant of Ramchandra I, Jammu and Kashmir was captured by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh of Lahore and afterwards, until 1846, became a tributary to the Sikh power.[4] Ranjit Deo's grandnephew, Gulab Singh, subsequently sought service at the court of Ranjit Singh, distinguished himself in later wars, and was appointed as the Governor or Raja of Jammu in 1820. With the help of his able officer, Zorawar Singh, Gulab Singh soon captured Ladakh and Baltistan, regions to the east and north-east of Kashmir.[4]

1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of different regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.

In 1845, the First Anglo-Sikh War broke out, and Gulab Singh contrived to hold himself aloof till the battle of Sobraon (1846), when he appeared as a useful mediator and the trusted advisor of Sir Henry Lawrence. Two treaties were concluded. In the first, the State of Lahore (i.e. West Punjab) was handed over to the British, for an equivalent amount to one crore rupees of indemnity, the hill countries between the Beas River and the Indus River; by the second the British made over to Gulab Singh for 75 lakhs rupees all the hilly or mountainous country situated to the east of the Indus River and west of the Ravi River" (i.e., the Vale of Kashmir).[4] Soon after Gulab Singh's death in 1857, his son, Ranbir Singh, added the emirates of Hunza, Gilgit and Nagar to the kingdom.

Ranbir Singh's grandson Hari Singh had ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1925 and was the reigning monarch at the conclusion of British rule in the subcontinent in 1947. As a part of the partition process, both countries had agreed that the rulers of princely states would be given the right to opt for either Pakistan or India or — in special cases — to remain independent. In 1947, Kashmir's population was 77% Muslim and it shared a boundary with Pakistan. On October 20, 1947, tribesmen backed by Pakistan invaded Kashmir.[5] The Maharaja initially fought back but on 27 October appealed for assistance to the Governor-General Louis Mountbatten, who agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India.[6] Once the papers of accession to India were signed, Indian soldiers entered Kashmir with orders to stop any further occupation, but they were not allowed to expel anyone from the state. India took the matter to the United Nations. The UN resolution asked Pakistan to vacate the areas it has occupied and asked India to assist the U.N. Plebiscite Commission to organize a plebiscite to determine the will of the people. Pakistan refused to vacate the occupied areas.

Diplomatic relations between India and Pakistan soured for many other reasons,[6] and eventually resulted in three further wars in Kashmir the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 and the Kargil War in 1999. India has control of 60 percent of the area of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir; Pakistan controls 30 percent of the region, known as Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir. China has since occupied 10 percent of the state in 1962.

Influential Kashmiri leader Sheikh Abdullah addressing a rally in Srinagar. Though Abdullah favored Indian rule in Kashmir, he led the demand for greater autonomy for Jammu and Kashmir within the framework of Indian constitution.[7]

The eastern region of the erstwhile princely state of Kashmir has also been beset with a boundary dispute. In the late 19th- and early 20th centuries, although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Tibet, Afghanistan and Russia over the northern borders of Kashmir, China never accepted these agreements, and the official Chinese position did not change with the communist takeover in 1949. By the mid-1950s the Chinese army had entered the north-east portion of Ladakh:[8] By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang and western Tibet. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962.[8] China has occupied Aksai Chin since 1962 and, in addition, an adjoining region, the Trans-Karakoram Tract was ceded by Pakistan to China in 1963.

For intermittent periods between 1957, when the state approved its own Constitution,[9] to the death of Sheikh Abdullah in 1982, the state had alternating spells of stability and discontent. In the late 1980s however, simmering discontent over the high-handed policies of the Union Government[10] and allegations of the rigging of the 1987 assembly elections[10] triggered a violent uprising which was backed by Pakistan.[11] Since then, the region has seen a prolonged, bloody conflict between militants and the Indian Army. Both the militants and the army have been accused of widespread human rights abuses, [12][13] including abductions, massacres,[14][15] rape [16]and looting. However, militancy in the state has been on the decline since 1996, and the situation has become increasingly peaceful in recent years.[17]


See also Kashmir Conflict

Geography and climate

Topographic map of J & K. Kashmir valley, Jammu region and Ladakh region are visible by altitude.
Nageen Lake
Lake Tso Moriri in Ladakh.
River rafting in the Zanskar subdistrict of Kargil.

Jammu and Kashmir is home to several valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley, Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and Lidder Valley. The main Kashmir valley is 100 km (62 mi) wide and 15,520.3 km2 (5,992.4 sq mi) in area. The Himalayas divide the Kashmir valley from Ladakh while the Pir Panjal range, which encloses the valley from the west and the south, separates it from the Great Plains of northern India. Along the northeastern flank of the Valley runs the main range of the Himalayas. This densely settled and beautiful valley has an average height of 1,850 metres (6,100 ft) above sea-level but the surrounding Pir Panjal range has an average elevation of 5,000 metres (16,000 ft).

The Jhelum River is the only major Himalayan river which flows through the Kashmir valley. The Indus, Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are the major rivers flowing through the state. Jammu and Kashmir is home to several Himalayan glaciers. With an average altitude of 5,753 metres (18,870 ft) above sea-level, the Siachen Glacier is 70 km (43 mi) long making it the longest Himalayan glacier.

The climate of Jammu and Kashmir varies greatly owing to its rugged topography. In the south around Jammu, the climate is typically monsoonal, though the region is sufficiently far west to average 40 to 50 mm (1.6 to 2 inches) of rain per months between January and March. In the hot season, Jammu city is very hot and can reach up to 40 °C (104 °F) whilst in July and August, very heavy though erratic rainfall occurs with monthly extremes of up to 650 millimetres (25.5 inches). In September, rainfall declines, and by October conditions are hot but extremely dry, with minimal rainfall and temperatures of around 29 °C (84 °F).

Across from the Pir Panjal range, the South Asian monsoon is no longer a factor and most precipitation falls in the spring from southwest cloudbands. Because of its closeness to the Arabian Sea, Srinagar receives as much as 25 inches (635 millimetres) of rain from this source, with the wettest months being March to May with around 85 millimetres (3.3 inches) per month. Across from the main Himalaya Range, even the southwest cloudbands break up and the climate of Ladakh and Zanskar is extremely dry and cold. Annual precipitation is only around 100 mm (4 inches) per year and humidity is very low. This region, almost all above 3,000 metres (9,750 ft) above sea level and winters are extremely cold. In Zanskar, the average January temperature is -20 °C (-4 °F) with extremes as low as -40 °C (-40 °F). All the rivers freeze over and locals actually do river crossings during this period because their high levels from glacier melt in summer inhibits crossing. In summer in Ladakh and Zanskar, days are typically a warm 20 °C (68 °F) but with the low humidity and thin air nights can still be cold.

Divisions

Jammu and Kashmir consists of three divisions: Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh, and is further divided into 22 districts:[18] The Siachen Glacier, although under Indian military control, does not lie under the administration of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Kishtwar, Ramban, Reasi, Samba, Bandipora, Ganderbal, Kulgam and Shopian are newly formed districts.[18]

Jammu region
  1. Kathua District
  2. Jammu District
  3. Samba District
  4. Udhampur District
  5. Reasi District
  6. Rajouri District
  7. Poonch District
  8. Doda District
  9. Ramban District
  10. Kishtwar District

  1. Kashmir Valley region
  2. Anantnag District
  3. Kulgam District
  4. Pulwama District
  5. Shopian District
  6. Budgam District
  7. Srinagar District
  8. Ganderbal District
  9. Bandipora District
  10. Baramulla District
  11. Kupwara District

  1. Ladakh region
  2. Kargil District
  3. Leh District

Demographics

Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India that has a Muslim majority population. Though Islam is practiced by about 67% of the population of the state and by 97% of the population of the Kashmir valley,[20] the state has large and vibrant communities of Buddhists, Hindus (inclusive of Megh bhagat) and Sikhs. In Jammu, Hindus constitute 65% of the population and Muslims 31% and Sikhs, 4%; In Ladakh, Buddhists constitute about 46% of the population, the remaining being Muslims. The people of Ladakh are of Indo-Tibetan origin, while the southern area of Jammu includes many communities tracing their ancestry to the nearby Indian states of Haryana and Punjab, as well as the city of Delhi. In totality, the Muslims constitute 67% of the population, the Hindus about 30%, the Buddhists 1%, and the Sikhs 2% of the population.[21]


Close-up of a statue depicting Maitreya at the Thikse monastery in Ladakh, India. Buddhism is practiced by majority of Ladakh's population reflecting the religious diversity of the state.

According to political scientist Alexander Evans, approximately 95% of the total population of 160,000-170,000 of Kashmiri Brahmins, also called Kashmiri Pandits, (i.e. approximately 150,000 to 160,000) left the Kashmir Valley in 1990 as militancy engulfed the state.[22] According to an estimate by the Central Intelligence Agency, about 300,000 Kashmiri Pandits from the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir have been internally displaced due to the ongoing violence.[23]

Division Population % Muslim % Hindu % Sikh % Buddhist/Other
Kashmir (53.9%) 5,476,970 97.16% 1.84% 0.88% 0.11%
Jammu (43.7%) 4,430,191 30.69% 65.23% 3.57% 0.51%
Ladakh (2.3%) 236,539 47.40% 6.22% 45.87%
Jammu & Kashmir 10,143,700 66.97% 29.63% 2.03% 1.36%
Statistics calculated from the 2001 Census India District Profiles
An estimated 50-100,000 Kashmiri Muslims[24][25] and 150-300,000 Kashmiri Pandits have been internally displaced due to militancy.[26][27]

In Jammu and Kashmir, the principal spoken languages are Kashmiri, Urdu, Dogri, Pahari, Balti, Ladakhi, Punjabi, Gojri and Dadri, Kishtwari. However, Urdu written in the Persian script is the official language of the state. Many speakers of these languages use Hindi or English as a second language.[28]

Politics and government

Flag of the State of Jammu and Kashmir
Indian Army controls the highest battlefield in the world, Siachen Glacier. Seen here are Indian Army Armored Vehicles in Siachen
A soldier guards the roadside checkpoint outside Srinagar International Airport. Jan 2009

Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India which enjoys special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India according to which, no law enacted by the Parliament of India, except for those in the field of defense, communication and foreign policy, will be extendable in Jammu and Kashmir unless it is ratified by the state legislature of Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequently, jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India over Jammu and Kashmir has been extended.[29] Jammu and Kashmir is also the only Indian state that has its own flag and constitution, and Indians from other states cannot purchase land or property in the state.[30] Designed by the then ruling National Conference, the flag of Jammu and Kashmir features a plough on a red background symbolizing labour substituted the Maharaja's state flag. The three stripes represent the three distinct administrative divisions of the state, namely Jammu, Valley of Kashmir, and Ladakh.[31]

Since 1990, the Armed Forces Act, which gives special powers to the Indian security forces, has been enforced in Jammu and Kashmir.[32] The decision to evoke this act was criticized by the Human Rights Watch.[33]

Like all the states of India, Jammu and Kashmir has a multi-party democratic system of governance with a bicameral legislature. At the time of drafting of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, 100 seats were earmarked for direct elections from territorial constituencies. Of these, 25 seats were reserved for the areas of Jammu and Kashmir State that came under Pakistani occupation, which came down to 24 after the 12th amendment of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir:

"The territory of the State shall comprise all the territories which on the fifteenth day of August, 1947, were under the sovereignty or suzerainty of the Ruler of the State" and Section 48 therein states that, "Notwithstanding anything contained in section 47, until the area of the State under the occuptions of Pakistan ceases to so occupied and the people residing in that area elect their representatives (a) twenty-five seats in the Legislative Assembly shall remain vacant and shall not be taken into account for reckoning the total member-ship of the Assembly; and the said area shall be excluded in delimiting the territorial Constituencies Under Section 47".

[34]

After a delimitation in 1988, the total number of seats increased to 111, of which 87 were within Indian administered territory.[35]The Jammu & Kashmir Assembly is the only state in India to have a 6 year as against the norm of a 5 year term followed in every other state's Assembly.[36] There was indication from the previous INC Government to bring parity with the other states,[37] but this does not seem to have received the required support to pass into law.

Influential political parties include the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (NC), the Indian National Congress (INC), the Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party (PDP), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and other smaller regional parties. After dominating Kashmir's politics for years, National Conference's influence waned in 2002, when INC and PDP formed a political alliance and rose to power.[38] Under the power sharing agreement, INC leader Ghulam Nabi Azad replaced PDP's Mufti Mohammad Sayeed as the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir in late 2005. However, in 2008, PDP withdrew its support from the government on the issue of temporary diversion of nearly 40 acres (160,000 m2) of land to Sri Amarnath Shrine Board.[39] In the 2008 Kashmir Elections that were held from November 17 to December 24, the National Conference party and the Congress party together won enough seats in the state assembly to form a ruling alliance.[40]

Some Kashmiris, especially those residing in Kashmir valley, demand greater autonomy, sovereignty and even independence from India. Due to the economic integration of Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of India, separatist movements across Kashmir valley were on a decline.[41] However, following the unrest in 2008, which included more than 500,000 protesters at a rally on August 18th, secessionist movements gained a boost.[42][43]

Economy

Jammu and Kashmir's economy is predominantly dependent on agriculture and allied activities.[44] The Kashmir valley is also known for its sericulture and cold water fisheries. Wood from Kashmir is used to make high-quality cricket bats, popularly known as Kashmir Willow. Kashmiri saffron is also very famous and brings the state a handsome amount of foreign exchange. Agricultural exports from Jammu and Kashmir include apples, barley, cherries, corn, millet, oranges, rice, peaches, pears, saffron, sorghum, vegetables, and wheat, while manufactured exports include handicrafts, rugs, and shawls.

Horticulture plays a vital role in the economic development of the state. With an annual turnover of over Rs. 300 crore, apart from foreign exchange of over Rs. 80 crore, this sector is the next biggest source of income in the state’s economy.[45] The region of Jammu is known for its horticulture industry[46] and is the wealthiest region in the state.[47] Horticultural produce from the state includes apples, apricots, cherries, pears, plums, almonds and walnuts.[45]

The Doda district has deposits of high-grade sapphire.[48] Though small, the manufacturing and services sector is growing rapidly, especially in the Jammu division. In recent years, several consumer goods companies have opened manufacturing units in the region. The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) has identified several industrial sectors which can attract investment in the state, and accordingly, it is working with the union and the state government to set up industrial parks and special economic zones.[49] In the fiscal year 2005–06, exports from the state amounted to Rs. 1,150 crore.[50] However, industrial development in the state faces several major constraints including extreme mountainous landscape and power shortage.[51]

The government has spent a lot of money in order to boost foreign direct investment. Seen here is a multi billion dollar rail link, 2nd highest in the world.
Tourism forms an integral part of the state's economy. Shown here is the Shalimar Gardens. In a famous incident, a Persian Emperor claimed it to be a paradise on Earth.

The Government of India has been keen to economically integrate Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of India. The state is one of the largest recipients of grants from New Delhi, totaling $ 812 million per year.[52] It also has a mere 4% incidence of poverty, one of the lowest in the country.[52] In an attempt to improve the infrastructure in the state, the Indian government has commenced work on the ambitious Kashmir Railway project which is being constructed by Konkan Railway Corporation and IRCON at a cost of more than US$2.5 billion.[53] The Jammu & Kashmir Bank, which is listed as a S&P CNX 500 conglomerate, is based in the state. It reported a net profit of Rs. 598 million in 2008.[54]

Before insurgency intensified in 1989, tourism formed an important part of the Kashmiri economy. The tourism economy in the Kashmir valley was worst hit. However, the holy shrines of Jammu and the Buddhist monasteries of Ladakh continue to remain popular pilgrimage and tourism destinations. Every year, thousands of Hindu pilgrims visit holy shrines of Vaishno Devi and Amarnath which has had significant impact on the state's economy.[55] The Vaishno Devi yatra alone contributes Rs. 475 crore to the local economy annually.[56] Tourism in the Kashmir valley has rebounded in recent years and in 2009, the state became one of the top tourist destinations of India.[57] Gulmarg, one of the most popular ski resort destinations in India, is also home to the world's highest green golf course.[58]


Year Gross State Domestic Product (in million INR)
1980 11,860
1985 22,560
1990 36,140
1995 80,970
2000 147,500
2006 539,850

Culture

Buddhism is an integral part of Ladakh's culture. Shown here is a statue of Buddha in a monastery in Likir.

Ladakh is famous for its unique Indo-Tibetan culture. Chanting in Sanskrit and Tibetan language forms an integral part of Ladakh's Buddhist lifestyle. Annual masked dance festivals, weaving and archery are an important part of traditional life in Ladakh. Ladakhi food has much in common with Tibetan food, the most prominent foods being thukpa, noodle soup; and tsampa, known in Ladakhi as Ngampe, roasted barley flour. Typical garb includes gonchas of velvet, elaborately embroidered waistcoats and boots, and gonads or hats. People, adorned with gold and silver ornaments and turquoise headgears throng the streets during various Ladakhi festivals.

Shikaras are a common feature in lakes and rivers across the Kashmir valley.

The Dumhal is a famous dance in the Kashmir valley, performed by men of the Wattal region. The women perform the Rouff, another traditional folk dance. Kashmir has been noted for its fine arts for centuries, including poetry and handicrafts. Shikaras, traditional small wooden boats, and houseboats are a common feature in various lakes and rivers across the Valley. The Constitution of India does not allow people from regions other than Jammu and Kashmir to purchase land in the state. As a consequence, houseboats became popular among those who were unable to purchase land in the Valley and has now become an integral part of the Kashmiri lifestyle. Kawa, traditional green tea with spices and almond, is consumed all through the day in the chilled winter climate of Kashmir. Most of the buildings in the Valley and Ladakh are made from softwood and is influenced by Indian, Tibetan, and Islamic architecture.

Jammu's Dogra culture and tradition is much similar to that of neighbouring Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. Traditional Punjabi festivals such as Lohri and Vaisakhi are celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm throughout the region. After Dogras, Gujjars form the second-largest ethnic group in Jammu. Known for their semi-nomadic lifestyle, Gujjars are also found in large numbers in the Kashmir valley. Similar to Gujjars, Gaddis are primarily herdsmen who hail from the Chamba region in Himachal Pradesh. Gaddis are generally associated with emotive music played on the flute. The Bakkarwalas found both in Jammu and the Vale of Kashmir are wholly nomadic pastoral people who move along the Himalayan slopes in search for pastures for their huge flocks of goats and sheep.

Education

In 1970, the state government of Jammu and Kashmir established its own education board and university. Education in the state is divided into primary, middle, high secondary, college and university level. Jammu and Kashmir follows 10+2 pattern for education of children. This is handled by Jammu and Kashmir State Board of School Education (abbreviated as JKBOSE). Various private and public schools are recognized by the board to impart education to students. Board examinations are conducted for students in class VIII, X and XII. In addition there are various Kendriya Vidyalayas (run by the Government of India) and Indian Army schools that also impart secondary school education. These schools follow the Central Board of Secondary Education pattern.

Notable higher education or research institutes in Jammu and Kashmir include National Institute of Technology Srinagar, Government College of Engineering and Technology of Jammu and the Government Medical College of Jammu. University-level education is provided by University of Jammu, University of Kashmir, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Islamic University of Science & Technology, and Baba Ghulam Shah Badhshah University.

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Reference Tables, A-series : Population". Census of India 2001. http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_data_finder/A_Series/Total_population.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
  2. ^ "Reference Tables, C-series : Population density". Census of India 2001. http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_data_finder/C_Series/Population_density.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
  3. ^ "Kashmir Dispute: Background". Official website of the Ministry of foreign affairs, Pakistan. http://www.mofa.gov.pk/Pages/Brief.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-13.
  4. ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. "Kashmir: History." page 94-95.
  5. ^ "Quick guide: Kashmir dispute". BBC News. 2006-06-29. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/5030514.stm. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
  6. ^ a b Stein, Burton. 1998. A History of India. Oxford University Press. 432 pages. ISBN 0195654463. Page 368.
  7. ^ http://www.jstor.org/sici?sici=0004-4687(196905)9:5<382:saatpo>2.0.CO;2-7
  8. ^ a b Kashmir. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 27, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  9. ^ Schofield 2003, p. 94
  10. ^ a b Schofield 2003, p. 137
  11. ^ Schofield 2003, p. 210
  12. ^ "India: "Everyone Lives in Fear": Patterns of Impunity in Jammu and Kashmir: I. Summary". http://hrw.org/reports/2006/india0906/2.htm#_Toc144362271. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  13. ^ "India and Human Rights in Kashmir - The Myth - India Together". http://www.indiatogether.org/peace/kashmir/articles/indhr.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  14. ^ Schofield 2003, pp. 148,158
  15. ^ "India: "Everyone Lives in Fear": Patterns of Impunity in Jammu and Kashmir: VI. Militant Abuses". http://hrw.org/reports/2006/india0906/7.htm#_Toc144362296. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  16. ^ "Kashmir troops held after rape". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/south_asia/1940088.stm. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  17. ^ "Towards Peace and Normalcy". Official webpage of the Government of Jammu and Kashmir. http://jammukashmir.nic.in/govt/peace.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
  18. ^ a b "::Ministry of Home Affairs:: Department of Jammu & Kashmir Affairs". http://mha.nic.in/uniquepage.asp?Id_Pk=306. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
  19. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2006-07/chapt2007/tab97.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  20. ^ Calculated from the 2001 Census India District Profiles
  21. ^ 2001 Census India: Data by Religious Communities
  22. ^ Evans, Alexander. 2002. "A departure from history: Kashmiri Pandits, 1990-2001" Contemporary South Asia, 11(1):19-37.
  23. ^ CIA - The World Factbook
  24. ^ http://www.amnesty.org.ru/library/Index/ENGASA010021997?open&of=ENG-BTN
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ Evans, Alexander. "A departure from history: Kashmiri Pandits, 1990-2001". Contemporary South Asia 2002(11):1.
  27. ^ CIA - The World Factbook
  28. ^ "Kashmiri: A language of India". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kas. Retrieved 2007-09-16.
  29. ^ States: Jammu & Kashmir: Repeating History:By Harinder Baweja (July 03, 2000)India Today
  30. ^ [2]
  31. ^ http://jkgad.nic.in/statutory/Rules-Costitution-of-J&K.pdf
  32. ^ “(PDF) The Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act, 1990” Indian Ministry of Law and Justice Published by the Authority of New Deli
  33. ^ “India: Repeal Armed Forces Special Powers Act Human Rights Watch retrieved September 11, 2008 ,
  34. ^ Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir Section 4 Read with Section 48(a)
  35. ^ Luv Puri. "The vacant seats". Online edition of The Hindu, dated 2002-10-24. http://www.thehindu.com/2002/10/24/stories/2002102403261300.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
  36. ^ Rasheeda Bhagat. "It is introspection time for Congress in J&K". Online edition of The Hindu Businessline, dated 2005-10-27. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2005/10/27/stories/2005102700451000.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
  37. ^ "Govt plans to reduce J&K Assembly’s term to 5 years". Online edition of The Tribune, dated 2005-11-19. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2005/20051119/j&k.htm#3. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
  38. ^ Jammu and Kashmir Assembly Elections 2002: Ending National Conference's Reign:30 October 2002 By S.H.Imam (J&K Insight)
  39. ^ PDP withdraws support from J&K government(By Mukhtar Ahmad in Srinagar)June 28, 2008 19:03 IST (Rediff News)
  40. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/12/28/indian.kashmir.vote/index.html
  41. ^ A.G. Noorani. "Article 370 : Law and politics". Online edition of Frontline magazine, Volume 17 - Issue 19, Sep. 16 - 29, 2000. http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1719/17190890.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
  42. ^ Avijit Ghosh. "In Kashmir, there's azadi in air". Online edition of The Times of India, dated 2008-08-17. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/In_Kashmir_theres_azadi_in_the_air/articleshow/3372070.cms. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
  43. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1838586,00.html
  44. ^ "CHAPTER III : Socio-Economic and Administrative Development". Jammu & Kashmir Development Report. State Plan Division, Planning Commission, Government of India. http://planningcommission.nic.in/plans/stateplan/sdr_jandk/sdr_jkch3a.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
  45. ^ a b "CHAPTER IV : Potential Sectors of State Economy". Jammu & Kashmir Development Report. State Plan Division, Planning Commission, Government of India. http://planningcommission.nic.in/plans/stateplan/sdr_jandk/sdr_jkch4.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
  46. ^ "India: Jammu registers 10,000 MTs increase in fruit production in 2 years". GreaterKashmir.com. 2007-10-5. http://www.greaterkashmir.com/full_story.asp?Date=5_10_2007&ItemID=26&cat=5. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
  47. ^ PTI (2008-02-10). "Demand for Mercedes in Jammu going up: Merc dealer". The Economic Times. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-2771649,prtpage-1.cms. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
  48. ^ Haroon Mirani (2008-06-20). "Sapphire-rich Kashmir". The Hindu Business Line. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/life/2008/06/20/stories/2008062050010100.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
  49. ^ "Funds sought for SEZs: ASSOCHAM identifies key sectors for J&K’s development". The Hindu. 2008-04-07. http://www.hindu.com/2008/04/07/stories/2008040753620300.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
  50. ^ PTI (2007-06-18). "Kashmir, the economy looks up". The Economic Times. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2130882.cms. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
  51. ^ "Power shortage to hit India Inc". Rediff News. 2008-04-02. http://www.rediff.com/money/2008/apr/02power.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
  52. ^ a b Amy Waldman (2002-10-18). "Border Tension a Growth Industry for Kashmir". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/18/world/border-tension-a-growth-industry-for-kashmir.html. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
  53. ^ Harish Kunwar. "Train-Link for J & K Prosperity". Press Release, Press Information Bureau, Government of India, dated 2008-10-16. http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=43772&kwd=. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  54. ^ "J&K Bank Q4 net up 32% at Rs598 mn". Livemint. 2008-06-02. http://www.livemint.com/2008/06/02121251/JampK-Bank-Q4-net-up-32-at.html?d=1. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
  55. ^ "Amarnath Board to study yatra impact on Kashmir economy". Online edition of The Hindu, dated 2007-09-13. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/002200709130350.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
  56. ^ Vaishno Devi yatra injects Rs 475 cr to Katra economy annually(CJ: Rattan Sharma , 27 Aug 2007)
  57. ^ "Foreign tourists flock Kashmir". Online edition of The Hindu, dated 2009-03-18. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/004200903181221.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
  58. ^ Fairway to Heaven - WSJ.com

References

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Dansk (Danish)
n. - Jammu and Kashmir

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n. - Jammu-et-Cachemire

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n. - Jammu und Kaschmir

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n. - Jammu e Kashmir

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n. - Jammu y Cachemira

中文(简体)(Chinese (Simplified))
查谟和克什米尔

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Dictionary. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2007, 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2007. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Read more
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